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Malus × zumi (Matsum.) Rehd.

Modern name

Malus zumi (Matsum.) Rehder


Pyrus zumi Matsum.; M. sieboldii var. zumi (Matsum.) Asami

A small tree of pyramidal habit; young wood slightly downy. Leaves ovate or oblong; 112 to 312 in. long, 34 to 112 in. wide, tapering or rounded at the base, glabrous except when quite young; stalks about 1 in. long. Flowers pink in bud, becoming white after opening, 1 to 114 in. diameter, produced in clusters of four to seven; calyx-lobes woolly, especially inside, longer than the tube; flower-stalks 1 to 112 in. long. Styles four or five. Fruits 12 in. in diameter, globose, red.

Native of Japan; introduced to N. America in 1892 by Sargent, and thence to Kew in 1905. It is one of the group of Japanese crabs to which M. sieboldii and M. sargentii belong, distinguished by small fruits marked at the apex by the scar of the fallen calyx. It is said to be superior to M. sieboldii as a garden tree in the Arnold Arboretum, being covered there in May by a mass of flowers, and in autumn by ‘attractive bright red fruits’. It differs from both its allies in its oblong leaves being only slightly or not at all lobed, and from M. sargentii in its wider flowers and less crowded petals. The fruits are larger than the pea-like ones of M. sieboldii and the flowers have four or five styles (three or four in M. sieboldii). It occurs wild in Japan, and Ohwi, in Flora of Japan, follows Asami in treating it as a variety of M. sieboldii. Rehder, however, considered it to be a hybrid between M. sieboldii and perhaps M. baccata var. mandshurica.

cv. ‘Calocarpa’. – This crab arose at the Arnold Arboretum among plants raised from seeds sent from Japan in 1890. It is intermediate between M. sieboldii and typical M. × zumi, having flowers with three or four styles as in the former and also resembling it in the well-marked lobing of the leaves on the extension growths. But it differs from M. sieboldii and resembles M. × zumi in its larger fruits, which are bright red, about 12 in. across, and often remain on the tree until Christmas. (M. sieboldii var. calocarpa Rehd.; M. × zumi var. calocarpa (Rehd.) Rehd.).


In this section are brought together in alphabetical order various hybrid clones which would otherwise have to be scattered through the descriptive text. Most of these bear vernacular names, but some Latin-named hybrids that are usually given botanical status have been brought into this section if they are clones of uncertain parentage.

‘Aldenhamensis’. – This crab arose in the garden of the Hon. Vicary Gibbs at Aldenham, Herts. It resembles ‘Eleyi’ but the fruits differ in being flattened globose, or orange-shaped, instead of conical; they are i in. wide, the calyx persists at the top and the stalks are thicker. The leaves are often slightly lobed, and their toothing is coarser and more uneven. The flowers, some of which are semi-double, are borne later than in ‘Eleyi’, at the end of May. It makes a quite small tree.

‘Almey’. – Leaves purplish when young, later bronze-green. Flowers about 2 in. across, the petals clear deep pink, but paler at the base, so that the flowers have an almost white, star-shaped centre. Early May. Fruits small, carmine-red but often becoming partly orange when fully ripe. It is a second-generation seedling of the Rosybloom group, named in 1945.

‘Cheal’s crimson’. – fruits orange with a red cheek, about 1 in. wide. flowers pink in the bud, opening white. a.m. 1917, as a variety of m. prunifolia.

‘Cheal’s golden gem’. – flowers large, pure white. fruits yellow, about 12 in. wide, ripe in september. near to m. prunifolia. there is an example at kew near the cherry path, planted 1924. a.m. 1919.

‘Chilko’. – Young leaves purplish. Flowers rose-pink, borne in the second half of April. Fruits crimson, glossy, about 112 in. long, ripe in August. A.M. 1967. It is a member of the Rosybloom group, see p. 703.

‘Cowichan’. – Flowers rose-pink, borne late April. Fruits bright purplish red, about 112 in. wide (Rosybloom Group, see p. 703).

‘Crittenden’. – Flowers pale pink. Fruits deep red on the sunny side, very glossy, 58 to almost 1 in. across, roundish but crowned with a fleshy pedestal bearing the persistent calyx. The original tree came from Japan as a seedling in 1921 under the name “Pyrus malus Toringo”. A tree grafted from this was acquired by B. P. Tompsett of Crittenden House, Matfield, Kent, and received an Award of Merit when exhibited by him on 24 January 1961. As the date suggests, the fruits remain on the tree almost throughout the winter, and in this respect ‘Crittenden’ resembles M. × robusta. It appears to be fairly near to M. prunifolia var. rinki.

‘Dartmouth’. – Fruits deep crimson with a purplish bloom, almost 2 in. across. An American variety probably deriving partly from the Red Astrakhan, raised in New Hampshire before 1883.

‘Dorothea’. – Flowers semi-double, silvery rose, 112 in. or slightly more across, borne freely even on young plants. Fruits yellow, about 12 in. wide. This hybrid was raised in the Arnold Arboretum and is named after the elder daughter of Dr Donald Wyman, for many years Horticulturalist of that institution. It grows slowly in the R.H.S. Garden at Wisley, but the flowers are certainly very beautiful.

‘Echtermayer’ (‘Oekonomierath Echtermayer’). – Branches weeping. Leaves bronzy-purple at first, later green. Flowers light carmine-red. Fruits purplish red, about 1 in. across. This crab was put into commerce by Späth in 1914 and is probably the one mentioned in previous editions (and in Kew Hand-lists) as Malus (or Pyrus) purpurea pendula. It is thought to be a hybrid between the Russian purple crab and ‘Excellenz Thiel’, the pendulous form of M. × scheideckeri. Mr Hillier informs us that he has found it to be a plant of poor constitution and very subject to scab.

‘Elise Rathke’. – An orchard apple with weeping branches and abundant beautiful flowers, followed by handsome yellow fruits of good flavour. Also known as M. pumila pendula.

‘Excellenz Thiel’. – A hybrid of M. floribunda and thought to be of the same parentage as M. × scheideckeri. It is of very pendulous habit and best grafted on a high stem.

‘Fairy’. – Fruits yellow, flushed and striped with crimson. A seedling of the Red Siberian (i.e., a form of M. × robusta), raised by Jennings, a nurseryman of Shipston-on-Stour, before 1875.

‘Golden Hornet’. – Fruits deep yellow, globose to egg-shaped, 34 to 1 in. wide, in clusters of three or four, very freely borne every year and remaining long on the tree. This crab, one of the most decorative of those grown for their fruits, was raised by Messrs Waterer, Son and Crisp. It received an Award of Merit in 1949 and a First Class Certificate in 1961. It shows the influence of M. prunifolia var. rinki in its yellow fruits with a persistent calyx borne on a fleshy pedestal.

‘Gorgeous’. – This crab, raised in New Zealand, is perhaps not in cultivation in Britain at present. It is said to make a small tree, producing large quantities of glossy red, roundish fruits about 1 in. wide, some of them cherry­like, others with a persistent calyx (Dendroflora, No. 1, p. 6; Catalogue of Messrs Duncan and Davies (1966), with colour photograph).

‘Hillieri’. – This hybrid, selected by Messrs Hillier in 1928 from a batch of plants received from Holland, is usually considered to belong to M. × scheideckeri. Flowers semi-double, rose-coloured, deeper in the bud, very freely borne. Foliage (unlike that of M. × scheideckeri) very healthy. Fruits yellow, flushed with red, soon falling. Mr Hillier recommends that this crab should be grown as a bush as it is not a strong grower. He informs us that some fruit growers have found it to be a good pollinator for ‘Cox’s Orange’. It is late-flowering.

‘Hopa’. – Leaves purplish when young. Flowers not such a clear pink as in ‘Almey’, but with the same pale, star-shaped centre. Fruits about 34 in. wide, carmine-red and orange when fully ripe. A vigorous grower, of upright habit when young. It has the same parentage as the Rosybloom crabs (see p. 703), but was raised in the United States by W. E. Hansen. American authorities consider ‘Patricia’ and ‘Radiant’ to be improvements on ‘Hopa’; both are seedlings from it by open pollination.

‘Hyslop’. – Fruits partly pale yellow, partly crimson with a purplish bloom. An old American variety, which according to Beach was already common by 1869. It is figured in his work The Apples of New York.

‘John Downie’. – Flowers pink in the bud, opening white, in late May. Fruits conical, 114 in. long, 1 in. wide, bright orange and scarlet, slender-stalked, produced in wonderfully profuse clusters. It was raised in 1875 by E. Holmes in his nursery at Whittington near Lichfield and put into commerce in 1885. Award of Merit 1895. John Downie was a Scottish nurseryman and a friend of the raiser, who at one time was partner in the famous Handsworth Nurseries (Fisher and Holmes, later Fisher, Son and Sibray).

‘Katherine’. – Flowers 2 in. or slightly more across, pale pink, fading to white, double (ten to twenty petals). Leaves dark green. Fruits red, about 14 in. across. A beautiful crab, but the flowers fade rather quickly; it is also of rather weak growth and best as a bush. It arose in one of the parks at Rochester, New York, and was distributed by the Arnold Arboretum in 1943 (D. Wyman, Trees for American Gardens, p. 312). It received an Award of Merit when shown by Messrs Notcutt at the R.H.S. show on 2 May 1967. The parentage is believed to be M. halliana × M. baccata.

‘Lady Northcliffe’. – Flowers pink in the bud, opening pure white, profusely borne in early May. Fruits brownish, about 12 in. wide; calyx deciduous. A hybrid of uncertain parentage, raised at Aldenham.

‘Lemoinei’. – A hybrid of perhaps the same parentage as M. × purpurea, raised by Lemoine and put into commerce around 1922. Flowers deep rosy purple, not borne freely on young plants. Leaves dark purple when young, becoming bronzy later. Fruits very dark reddish purple and therefore not showy.

‘Liset’. See under ‘Profusion’.

‘Magdeburgensis’. – A hybrid of an orchard apple (or possibly of a Paradise apple) raised in Germany at the end of the last century. It has a spreading crown and bears in May dense clusters of flowers with up to twelve petals, each about 1 in. wide, the petals of a lovely deep rose outside, paler towards the base and inside. Fruits subglobose, yellowish, about 1 in. wide. The other parent is usually given as M. spectabilis but Den Boer considered that ‘Magdeburgensis’ shows no trace of the influence of that species and suggested M. sylvestris ‘Plena’ as the other parent. There is an example in the R.H.S. Garden at Wisley at the edge of Seven Acres, near the Restaurant.

‘Montreal Beauty’. – The crab in commerce in Britain under this name has large white flowers and fruits with a yellow to orange ground-colouring overlaid with crimson, almost 2 in. wide. It is perhaps the same as the old Canadian variety ‘Montreal’, raised before 1833.

‘Neville Copeman’. – A seedling of ‘Eleyi’ raised by T. N. S. Copeman at Roydon Hall, Diss, Norfolk, and put into commerce by Messrs Notcutt. A.M. 6 October 1954. It resembles ‘Eleyi’ in flower, but is of better constitution and more striking in its fruits, which are reddish orange or brilliant crimson. In shape they vary from flattened-globose to broad-ellipsoid.

‘Prince George’s’. – Flowers very double, with about fifty petals, light pink and about 2 in. across. Foliage as in M. ioensis ‘Plena’ but narrower. A very striking crab, flowering late May or early June, but rather a weak grower in Britain. According to Dr Wyman it was raised in the USA from seeds collected in the Arnold Arboretum, and is believed to be a hybrid between M. angustifolia and M. ioensis ‘Plena’. It was first grown in the Trial Grounds of the Department of Agriculture in Prince George’s County, Maryland.

‘Professor Sprenger’. – Fruits about 12 in. wide, orange-coloured when fully ripe, persisting until December. Raised in Holland.

‘Profusion’. – Leaves purple at first, later bronze-green, often three-lobed on the extension growths. Flowers deep purplish red, but soon paling, very freely borne. Fruits oxblood-red when fully ripe, about 38 in. wide, flattened top and bottom. It makes a small tree, of excellent constitution, and was raised by S. G. A. Doorenbos from a cross between M. sieboldii and ‘Lemoinei’. A third-generation hybrid from this cross is ‘Liset’, also raised by Mr Doorenbos. This is as yet little known in Britain but received a higher rating than ‘Profusion’ in the Boskoop Trials. The flowers are said to hold their colour better than in ‘Profusion’ and the tree is said to be very resistant to scab. Hybrids of the parentage given above have been named the Moerlandsii Group.

‘Red Jade’. – A crab with drooping branches and sharply serrated acuminately tapered leaves, borne on long, slender stalks. Flowers white, borne early May, followed by a profuse crop of small, red, broadly ovoid or globular fruits; calyx deciduous. Raised in the USA.

‘Red Sentinel’. – Flowers white, early May. Fruits deep red, glossy; about 1 in. wide, roundish but flattened top and bottom, slightly ribbed, calyx deciduous or persistent. The fruits remain on the tree through most of the winter. Possibly a form of M. × robusta.

‘Red Tip’. – Leaves reddish when young. Flowers deep purplish pink. Fruits yellowish green and red, almost 2 in. across. A hybrid between the Russian purple crab (M. niedzwetzkyana) and either M. ioensis or M. coronaria, Raised in the USA by Hansen.

‘Simcoe’. – Young foliage copper-tinted. Flowers rose-pink, borne early May; petals incurved at the tips. A member of the Rosybloom group (see p. 703) and perhaps the first to be introduced to Britain. A.M. 1940 (for flower) and 1945 (for fruit), on both occasions being shown by Lady Lawrence from her garden in Surrey.

‘Van Eseltine’. – A small tree of columnar habit. Flowers double, almost 2 in. across, rosy-pink. It is near to M. spectabilis and believed to be a hybrid between it and M. × arnoldiana. Raised in the USA.

‘Veitch’s Scarlet’. – Flowers white, late May. Fruits scarlet, darkening to crimson on the sunny side, 134 in. wide. A hybrid between the orchard apple ‘King of the Pippins’ and the Red Siberian (a form of M. × robusta), raised early this century by Messrs Veitch.

‘Wintergold’. – Leaves glossy green, some of them three-lobed. Fruits yellow, about 12 in. wide, on long, slender stalks, remaining on the tree until Christmas. A hybrid of M. sieboldii, raised in Holland.



Other species in the genus